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Carnosine (L-Carnosine)

Carnosine - Scientific References

  • High Strength Carnosine
    90 Caps x 500mg
    Was £49.99
    Now £29.99
    High Strength Carnosine

    Abe H. Role of Histidine-Related Compounds as Intracellular Proton Buffering Constituents in Vertebrate Muscle. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65:7

  • Aerts L, Van Assche FA. Low taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and carnosine levels in plasma of diabetic pregnant rats: consequences for the offspring. J Perinat Med. 2001;29(1):81-4.(PubMed)

  • Alaghband-Zadeh J, Mehdizadeh S, Khan NS, et al. The natural substrate for nitric oxide synthase activity. Cell Biochem Funct. 2001;19(4):277-80. (PubMed)

  • Aldini G, Carini M, Beretta G, et al. Carnosine is a quencher of 4-hydroxy-nonenal: through what mechanism of reaction? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298(5):699-706. (PubMed)

  • Baran EJ. Metal complexes of carnosine. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65(7):789-97 (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Baslow MH. Function of the N-acetyl-L-histidine system in the vertebrate eye. Evidence in support of a role as a molecular water pump. J Mol Neurosci, 1998, 10(3), 193-208.

  • Baslow MH, Suckow RF, Berg MJ et al. Differential expression of carnosine, homocarnosine and N-acetyl-L-histidine hydrolytic activities in cultured rat macroglial cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2001 Dec;17(3):351-9. (PubMed)

  • Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new perspective on an old paradigm. Diabetes 1999;48 (1) 1-9,

  • Bharadwaj LA, Davies GF, Xavier IJ et al. l-carnosine and verapamil inhibit hypoxia-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF- 1 alpha) in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Pharmacol Res. 2002 Mar;45(3):175-181.(PubMed)

  • Boldyrev AA. Problems and Perspectives in Studying the Biological Role of Carnosine. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65:7

  • Boldyrev A. Carnosine as a modulator of endogenous Zn(2+) effects. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2001;22(3):112-3.(PubMed)

  • Boldyrev AA, Gallant SC, Suhkich GT. Carnosine, the protective, anti-aging peptide. Biosci Rep, 1999, 19 (6), 581-7.(PubMed)

  • Boldyrev AA, Yuneva MO, Sorokina EV et al. Antioxidant systems in tissues of senescence accelerated mice. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2001;66(10):1157-63. (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Bonfanti L, Peretto P, De Marchis S et al. Carnosine-related dipeptides in the mammalian brain. Prog Neurobiol. 1999 Nov;59(4):333-53. Review. (PubMed)

  • Brownson C, Hipkiss AR. Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 May 15;28(10):1564-70. (PubMed)

  • Chace KV, Carubelli R, Nordquist RE. The role of nonenzymatic glycosylation, transition metals, and free radicals in the formation of collagen aggregates. Arch Biochem Biophys 1991;288(2):473-80 (PubMed)

  • Chen Y, Ho CT. Effects of carnosine on volatile generation from Maillard reaction of ribose and cysteine. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(8):2372-6. (PubMed)

  • Chez MG, Buchanan CP, Komen JL, Becker M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Neurology 2003 (accepted for publicationt). (Abstract)

  • Decker EA, Livisay SA, Zhou S. Re-evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Purified Carnosine. Review. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65:7

  • High Strength Carnosine
    90 Caps x 500mg
    Was £49.99
    Now £29.99
    High Strength Carnosine

    Decker EA, Ivanov V, Zhu BZ, Frei B. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by carnosine histidine. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jan;49(1):511-6. (PubMed)

  • Dukic-Stefanovic S, Schinzel R, Riederer P, Munch G. AGES in brain ageing: AGE-inhibitors as neuroprotective and anti-dementia drugs? Biogerontology. 2001;2(1):19-34. Review. (PubMed)

  • Dunnett M, Harris RC, Dunnett CE, Harris PA. Plasma carnosine concentration: diurnal variation and effects of age, exercise and muscle damage. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2002;(34):283-7. (PubMed)

  • Ferraris R. P., Diamond J., Kwan W. W. Dietary regulation of intestinal transport of the dipeptide carnosine. Am. J. Physiol. 1988;255:G143-G150 (PubMed)

  • Gallant S, Semyonova M, Yuneva M. Carnosine as a potential anti-senescence drug. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000l;65(7):866-8.(PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Gallant S, Kukley M, Stvolinsky S et al. Effect of carnosine on rats under experimental brain ischemia. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2000 Jun;191(2):85-99.(PubMed)

  • Gariballa SE, Sinclair, AJ. Carnosine: physiological properties and therapeutic potential. Age and Aging, 2000, 29: 207-210..(PubMed)

  • Halliwell B.Gutteridge, JMC. (1999) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Oxford University Press, Oxford- N. Y.

  • Hayflick L. The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res. 1965; 37:614-36.

  • Hayflick L, Moorhead PS. The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res. 1961; 25:585-621.

  • Hipkiss AR. Could carnosine be a naturally-occurring scavenger for acrolein and other reactive aldehydes in the brain? Neurobiol Aging. 2002;23(4):645-6. (PubMed)

  • Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Bertani MFReaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;959:285-94. Review. (PubMed)

  • Hipkiss AR, Brownson C. A possible new role for the anti-aging peptide carnosine. Cell Mol Life Sci, 2000 a., 57 (5): 747-53. (PubMed)

  • Hipkiss AR, Brownson C. Carnosine reacts with protein carbonyl groups: another possible role for the anti-ageing peptide? Biogerontology. 2000 b;1(3):217-23. Review. (PubMed)

  • Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Carrier MJ. Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Sep 15;122(13):1431-45. (PubMed)

  • Hipkiss AR. Biosynthesis, Release, and Uptake of Carnosine in Primary Cultures. Review. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000 c;65:7

  • Hipkiss AR. et al. Protective effects of carnosine against MDA-induced toxicity towards cultured rat brain endothelial cells. Neuroscience Letters. 1997. 135-138.

  • Hipkiss AR et al. Protective effects of carnosine against protein modification mediated by nialondialdchyde and hypochlorite. Bioch Biophys Acta 1998, 1380;46- 54.

  • Hollyday R, McFarland GA. A Role for Carnosine in Cellular Maintenance. Review Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65:7

  • Horning MS, Blakemore LJ, Trombley PQ. Endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection: role of zinc, copper, and carnosine. Brain Res. 2000;852(1):56-61.(PubMed)

  • Jackson MC, Lenney JF. The distribution of carnosine and related dipeptides in rat and human tissues. Inflamm Res 1996, 45(3): 132-5.

  • Jin M, Otaka M, Watanabe S. [New therapeutic approaches to peptic ulcer using mucosal protective agents] Nippon Rinsho. 2002;60 Suppl 2:377-81. Review.

  • Kang JH, Eum WS. Enhanced oxidative damage by the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated Cu,Zn- superoxide dismutase mutants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Dec 15;1524(2-3):162-70. (PubMed)

  • Kang JH, Kim KS, Choi SY et al. Carnosine and related dipeptides protect human ceruloplasmin against peroxyl radical-mediated modification. Mol Cells. 2002;13(3):498-502.

  • High Strength Carnosine
    90 Caps x 500mg
    Was £49.99
    Now £29.99
    High Strength Carnosine

    Kang KS, Yun JW, Lee YS. Protective effect of L-carnosine against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis on v-myc transformed rat liver epithelial cells. Cancer Lett. 2002 Apr 8;178(1):53-62. (PubMed)

  • Kang JH, Kim KS, Choi SY et al. Protection by carnosine-related dipeptides against hydrogen peroxide-mediated ceruloplasmin modification. Mol Cells. 2002 a.;13(1):107-12.(PubMed)

  • Keane F, O'Cuinn G. Two broad-specificity dipeptide hydrolysing activities from cytoplasm of guinea pig brain, both of which contain prolinase but neither of which contain carnosinase activity. Neurosci Res. 2002 b.;44(1):111-20. (PubMed)

  • Khaspekov LG, Klyushnik TP, Dupin AM, Lyzhin AA, Bezrukov MV. Protective effect of Biolan during ischemic damages to cultured cerebellar granular cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002;133(2):136-8. (PubMed)

  • Kynazis M. 1999. Data on file.

  • Lovell MA, Xie C, Markesbery WR. Acrolein is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain and is toxic to primary hippocampal cultures. Neurobiol Aging 2001;22(2):187-94 (PubMed)

  • MacFarlane N, McMurray J, O'Dowd JJ, Dargie HJ, Miller DJ. Related Articles, Links Synergism of histidyl dipeptides as antioxidants. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1991;23(11):1205-7. (PubMed)

  • Maichuk UF, Formaziuk VE, Sergienko VI. Development of carnosine eyedrops and assessing their efficacy in corneal diseases. Vestn Oftalmol, 1997, 113(6): 27- 31.

  • Maynard LM, Boissonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GG. High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and histidine in rat soleus muscle. J Nutr. 2001;131(2):287-90. (PubMed) Click in the absrtact for Free full text.

  • Marchis SD, Modena C, Peretto P et al. Carnosine-related dipeptides in neurons and glia. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000;65(7):824-33. (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Margolis FL. Carnosine in the primary olfactory pathway. Science. 1974;184(139):909-11

  • McFarland GA, Holliday R. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts by carnosine. Exp Cell Res, 1994, 212(2): 167-75.

  • McFarlandGA ,Holliday R. Further evidence for the rejuvenating effects of the dipeptide I L--carnosine on cultured human diploid fibroblast. Exp Gerontol 1999 34(l):35-45.

  • Nagai K, Suda T, Kawasaki K, Yamaguchi Y. Effects of L-carnosine on blood cells and biomembrane. Nippon Seirigaku Zasshi, 1990, 52(10): 339-44.

  • Nagai K, Suda T. Immuno-enhancing actions of carnosine and homocarnosine. Nippon Seirigaku Zasshi, 1986, 48 (11):735-40.

  • Nagai K, Suda T; Realization of spontaneous healing function by carnosine. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmocol, 1988, 10(8): 497-507.

  • Nagasawa T, Yonekura T, Nishizawa N, Kitts DD. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of muscle lipid and protein oxidation by carnosine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;225(1-):29-34.(PubMed)

  • Nguimfack Mbodie PC. [Do the glutamate excitotoxicity theory and potential free radicals implication in schizophrenia aetiopathogenesis provide a new enlightenment to links between: genome, environment and biology in the determinism of that disorder?] Encephale. 2002;28(2):147-53. (PubMed)

  • Niijima A, Okui T, Matsumura Y, Yamano T, et al.Effects of L-carnosine on renal sympathetic nerve activity and DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2002;97(2):99-102. (PubMed)

  • Nikitenko Niu, Shavratskii VKh, Boldyrev AA et al. Effect of carnosine and its derivatives on ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. Vopr Med Khim, 1995, 41(1): 41-3.

  • O'Dowd JJ, Robins DJ, Miller DJ. Detection, characterisation, and quantification of carnosine and other histidyl derivatives in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;967(2):241-9. (PubMed)

  • Peretto P, Luzzati F, Bonfanti L et al. Aminoacyl-histidine dipeptides in the glial cells of the adult rabbit forebrain. Peptides. 2000;21(11):1717-24.(PubMed)

  • Petroff OA, Hyder F, Rothman DL, Mattson RH Homocarnosine and seizure control in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and complex partial seizures. Neurology. 2001;56(6):709-15.(PubMed)

  • Petroff OA, Hyder F, Rothman DL et al. Effects of gabapentin on brain GABA, homocarnosine, and pyrrolidinone in epilepsy patients. Epilepsia. 2000;41(6):675-80 (PubMed)

  • Preston J et al. Toxic effects of B-amyloid on immortalised rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and B-alanine. Neuroscience letters 1998, 242; 105-108.

  • Quinn PL Boldyrev AA. Formaziuk VH. Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications. Mol Aspects Mod, 1992, 13(5):379-444.

  • Price DL, Rhett PM, Thorpe SR, et al. Chelating activity of advanced glycation end-product inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(52):48967-72. [Full text]

  • Ririe DG, Roberts PR, Shouse MN, Zaloga GP. Vasodilatory actions of the dietary peptide carnosine. Nutrition. 2000 Mar;16(3):168-72. (PubMed)

  • Roberts PR, Black KW, Santamauro JT. Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery. Nutrition, 1998, 14(3):266-9. (PubMed)

  • Roberts PR, Zaloga GP. Cardiovascular effects of carnosine. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):856-61. Review. (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Rubtsov AM. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-release channels (ryanodine receptors), muscle fatigue, and Severin's phenomenon. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2001 Oct;66(10):1132-43. Review. (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • High Strength Carnosine
    90 Caps x 500mg
    Was £49.99
    Now £29.99
    High Strength Carnosine

    Sankarasubbaiyan S, Cooper C, Heilig CW. Identification of a novel form of renal glucosuria with overexcretion of arginine, carnosine, and taurine. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37(5):1039-43. (PubMed)

  • Seidler NW, Yeargans GS. Effects of thermal denaturation on protein glycation. Life Sci. 2002 ;70(15):1789-99. (PubMed)

  • Severina IS, Bussygina OG, Pyatakova NV. Carnosine as a Regulator of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase. Review. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65:7

  • Skulachev VP. Problems and Perspectives in Studying the Biological Role of Carnosine (Introduction of the Guest-Editor) Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65:7

  • Smythies J. Redox mechanisms at the glutamate synapse and their significance: a review. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;370(1):1-7. Review. (PubMed)

  • Soliman K, El-Ansary A, Mohamed AM. Effect of carnosine administration on metabolic parameters in bilharzia-infected hamsters. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;129(1):157-64. (PubMed)

  • Stadtman ER, Levine RL.Protein Oxidation Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2000; 899(1): 191 - 208. (Abstract)

  • Steinberg C, Notterman DA. Hemodynamic effects of carcinine in the anesthetized, instrumented, open-chest rat. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(12):2042-5.(PubMed)

  • Stuerenburg HJ. The roles of carnosine in aging of skeletal muscle and in neuromuscular diseases. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000l;65(7):862-5. Review.(PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Stuerenburg HJ, Kunze K; Concentrations of free carnosine (a putative membrane- protective antioxidant) in human muscle Biopsies and rat muscles. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 1999, 29: 107-113.

  • Stvolinsky SL, Dobrota D. Anti-ischemic activity of carnosine. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000;65(7):849-55. Review. (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • Stvolinsky S, Kukley M, Dobrota D. Carnosine protects rats under global ischemia. Brain Res Bull. 2000;53(4):445-8.(PubMed)

  • Sunderman FW Jr. Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2001;31(1):3-24. Review. (PubMed)

  • Suslina ZA, Federova TN, Maksimova MIu et al. [Antioxidant therapy in ischemic stroke] Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2000;100(10):34-8 (PubMed)

  • Suzuki Y, Ito O, Mukai N, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K. High Level of Skeletal Muscle Carnosine Contributes to the Latter Half of Exercise Performance during 30-s Maximal Cycle Ergometer Sprinting. Jpn J Physiol. 2002;52(2):199-205. (PubMed)

  • Tabakman R, Lazarovici P, Kohen R. Neuroprotective effects of carnosine and homocarnosine on pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to ischemia. J Neurosci Res. 2002;68(4):463-9. (PubMed)

  • Tameyasu T, Yamada M, Tanaka M, Takahashi S. Effect of zinc-carnosine chelate compound on muscle function in mdx mouse. Jpn J Physiol. 2002;52(1):111-20. (PubMed)

  • Tan KM, Candlish JK. Carnosine and anserine as modulators of neutrophil function. Clin Lab Haematol, 1998, 20(4): 239-44.

  • Tarnha M, et al. Hydroxyl radical scavenging by carnosine and Cu(ii)-carm)sine complexes. Int J Radial Biol, 1999 75(9):1 177-1188.

  • Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. Role of the Maillard reaction in diabetes mellitus and diseases of aging. Drugs Aging 1996;9(2):69-77 (PubMed)

  • Trombley PQ, Horning MS, Blakemore LJ. Interactions between carnosine and zinc and copper: implications for neuromodulation and neuroprotection. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):807-16. Review. (PubMed) [Click "Go to publisher´s site" for full text]

  • High Strength Carnosine
    90 Caps x 500mg
    Was £49.99
    Now £29.99
    High Strength Carnosine

    Truitsina IE, Shabanov M, Chikunova BZ, et al.Characterization of the anti-ulcer effectiveness of carnosine. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter, 1997, 4: 17-20.

  • Yamano T, Niijima A, Iimori S, et al. Effect of L-carnosine on the hyperglycemia caused by intracranial injection of 2-deoxy-D- glucose in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2001;313(1-2):78-82. (PubMed)

  • Yuneva MO, Bulygina ER, Gallant SC et al. Effect of carnosine on age- induced changes in senescence-accelerated mice. J Anti-Aging Medicine, 2: 1999, 337-342. (PubMed)

  • Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW. et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol. 1997;272(1 Pt 2):H462-8. (PubMed)

  • Further references at PubMed, search for ´carnosine´.

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